In this activity, an antibiotic gene is amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Following amplification, the size of the amplified gene is determined by using DNA standard markers and ultraSpec-Agarose™ for gel electrophoresis. The T4 DNA Ligase is used to insert the antibiotic gene into a predigested plasmid, and the resulting recombinant DNA “clone” is used to transform LyphoCells™. The transformed cells are then plated, and the transformants are counted to determine transformation efficiency. Includes instructions and materials for five student groups. Requires electrophoresis equipment, thermal cycler, two waterbaths, incubator, micropipets, and white light or UV transilluminator, all available separately.